Coronavirus Live Updates: New Research Boosts Evidence of Masks’ Utility, Some Experts Say

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Masks have long been known to help stop infected people from spreading the virus, but some research now suggests they also protect the uninfected. A Major League Baseball outbreak upends another rite of summer. Republicans are seeking to cut $600 weekly jobless aid to $200.

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Gov. Andy Beshear of Kentucky ordered the state’s bars closed only a month after they reopened and reduced legal restaurant capacity from 50 percent to 25 percent.

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Credit...Nick Oxford for The New York Times

Masks may also protect people wearing them, some experts say.

Researchers have long known that masks can prevent people from spreading airway germs to others.

But now experts are pointing to evidence suggesting that masks also protect the people wearing them, lessening the severity of symptoms, or in some instances, staving off infection entirely.

Different kinds of masks “block virus to a different degree, but they all block the virus from getting in,” said Dr. Monica Gandhi, an infectious disease physician at the University of California, San Francisco. If any virus particles do breach these barriers, she said, the disease might still be milder.

Dr. Gandhi and her colleagues make this argument in a paper to be published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine. Drawing from animal experiments and observations of various events during the pandemic, they contend that people wearing face coverings will take in fewer coronavirus particles.

Dr. Tsion Firew, an emergency physician at Columbia University who wasn’t involved in the work, cautioned that the links between masking and milder disease haven’t yet been proved as cause and effect.

Ideas about the importance of viral dose in the development of disease have cropped up in the medical literature since at least the 1930s. More recently, scientists have gone as far as to puff different amounts of a flu virus up the noses of human volunteers. The more virus in this nasal plume, they found, the likelier the participants were to get infected and experience symptoms.

That sort of experiment can’t be done ethically for the new coronavirus, given how dangerous it is. But earlier this year, a team of researchers in China tried something similar in hamsters: They housed coronavirus-infected and healthy animals in adjoining cages, some of which were separated by buffers made of surgical masks. Many of the healthy hamsters behind the partitions never got infected. And the unlucky animals who did got less sick than their “maskless” neighbors.

Rules around mask wearing have been highly politicized. President Trump spent months questioning their utility and refusing to wear one in public, though he has recently changed course.

Don’t play ball: Canceled Major League games are the latest sign of how the virus has upended summer.

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Credit...Chris Szagola/Associated Press

Another of summer’s most-cherished rites was upended by the pandemic on Monday when the attempted return of Major League Baseball hit a snag, as the Miami Marlins canceled their home opener after 14 members of the team tested positive for the coronavirus.

The troubled return of the national pastime, after months of careful planning, was only the latest sign that the virus, instead of ebbing over the summer as officials had once hoped it would, is spreading at record levels across wide sections of the United States.

A month that began with canceled July 4 fireworks displays across the country and sporadic beach closures has continued with edicts shutting down the bars of Bourbon Street in New Orleans and the dance floors of Nashville. Now a new round of cancellations — including the Marlins game and a Phillies game in Philadelphia, where the visiting Yankees would have had to use the same clubhouse that the Marlins had — is continuing to disrupt summer life.

The infections, and cancellations, cast a pall over baseball’s plans to attempt a 60-game season using 30 stadiums, including a ballpark in Buffalo for the Toronto Blue Jays, who were barred from playing home games by the Canadian government because of the risk of travel to and from the United States.

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, warned early on about how the pandemic would transform professional sports. He threw out the first pitch at baseball’s opening game last Thursday between Yankees and Washington Nationals, an image featured on a limited-edition Topps NOW baseball card that Topps said sold 51,512 copies during its 24-hour offering.

Topps said that the demand for the card was more than double the previous record for a Topps NOW card, which was 19,396 copies of a Vladimir Guerrero Jr. card in 2019.

There will also be no summer blockbuster at the local movie theater this summer: “Tenet,” the Christopher Nolan thriller that Warner Bros. had hoped would lure fans back to multiplexes this month, has now been postponed until Sept. 4 — the beginning of Labor Day weekend.

The political blockbusters planned for later this summer — the national conventions — will be unrecognizable from years past. President Trump said last week that he was bowing to the reality of the virus and canceling the convention activities he had tried to move to Jacksonville, Fla., after officials in North Carolina, where they were initially supposed to be held, had insisted on enforcing health guidelines. And Democrats have long been working on a scaled-back convention in Milwaukee where they plan to nominate Joseph R. Biden Jr.

One of the other big television events of the summer — the Olympics — is off, too. Tokyo, where the games were supposed to be underway right now, instead finds itself grappling with record numbers of new cases on several recent days.

Even the unofficial end of summer — the start of the school year — is being postponed in many districts, where officials say that they need more time to prepare for classes, which will be held in person in some places and online in others.

Republicans seek to slash expiring jobless payments by two-thirds as part of $1 trillion recovery bill.

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Credit...Joseph Rushmore for The New York Times

Republicans are seeking a $400-per-week reduction in unemployment benefits in their $1 trillion economic recovery package, initially lowering the extra federal payments for tens of millions of jobless Americans from $600 to $200, according to Senator Mitch McConnell, Republican of Kentucky and the majority leader.

The proposal to slash the jobless aid by two-thirds, part of a Republican plan they began rolling out on Monday afternoon, is likely to be among the most bitterly contested issues in bipartisan negotiations over the next round of pandemic relief. Democrats support a $3 trillion package that includes extending the $600-per-week federal payments, which expire on Friday, through the end of the year.

Many Republicans detest the supplement to state jobless aid, put in place by the $2.2 trillion stimulus law, arguing that it is a disincentive to returning to work because it exceeds what some workers can earn in regular wages. The Republican proposal, which has badly divided the party, envisions eventually shifting to a new system of calculating benefits that would cap payments at about 70 percent of a worker’s prior income, which would also amount to about $200 per week.

It also proposes another round of $1,200 direct payments to Americans.

In a nod to the long odds of striking a deal before the benefits expire on Friday, administration officials continue to float the prospect of speeding through a much narrower bill that would extend extra jobless aid, provide funding for schools and enact new liability shields for operating businesses.

But Democrats have rejected that idea, saying it would sap momentum for other crucial relief measures.

“We have stood ready to negotiate for more than two months,” Speaker Nancy Pelosi said in a statement on Monday, calling on Republican leadership and White House officials “to come to the Speaker’s Office and join Leader Schumer and me within a half an hour of releasing their plan today to negotiate and get the job done.”

“If Republicans care about working families, this won’t take long,” she said. “Time is running out. Congress cannot go home without an agreement.”

Trump, reverting to form, says ‘governors should be opening up states that they’re not reopening.’

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Trump Boasts About Progress Toward a Coronavirus Vaccine

During a visit to a North Carolina biotechnology lab, President Trump urged Americans to practice social distancing, and said there had been “tremendous” progress toward developing a vaccine.

I trust all Americans to do the right thing. But we strongly advise everyone to especially, especially focus on maintaining a social distance, maintaining rigorous hygiene, avoid large gatherings in crowded indoor bars and wear masks when appropriate. We also strongly urge citizens to take extra precautions to shield those at highest risk, which are in most cases, in many cases, the elderly — especially the elderly with medical problems such as heart or diabetes. Just before I left the White House, in the Oval Office we had a meeting with our doctors, scientists some others. And they’re making tremendous progress with respect to therapeutics. I can tell you, therapeutically, I think over the next couple of weeks, we’ll have some really very good things to say. We’re just having great answers. So it is about that. And it’s also the vaccine that we discussed today at even greater length, is just coming along really well.

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During a visit to a North Carolina biotechnology lab, President Trump urged Americans to practice social distancing, and said there had been “tremendous” progress toward developing a vaccine.CreditCredit...Anna Moneymaker for The New York Times

Even as the virus rages across much of the nation, forcing many states to slow or reverse their reopenings, President Trump said Monday that more states should be opening up.

During a visit to a North Carolina biotechnology lab, Mr. Trump boasted that progress toward a vaccine is “substantially ahead of schedule” and that a breakthrough would lead to a “tremendous” economic recovery.

In the next breath, Mr. Trump complained that “a lot of the governors should be opening up states that they’re not opening, and we’ll see what happens with them.”

It was something of a return to form for Mr. Trump, who has long pressed states to reopen, downplaying the threat of the virus, but who had seemed to shift last week when he declared at the White House that the virus “will probably, unfortunately, get worse before it gets better.”

But on Monday Mr. Trump also urged Americans to “especially focus on maintaining a social distance, maintaining rigorous hygiene, avoid large gatherings and crowded indoor bars and wears masks when appropriate.” And he then donned a mask himself for a subsequent tour of the lab facility, where researchers are making components for a potential vaccine.

Mr. Trump spoke after the White House announced that his national security adviser, Robert C. O’Brien, had tested positive for the coronavirus, making him the most senior White House official known to have contracted the virus. In a statement, the White House said that Mr. O’Brien “has mild symptoms” and is working remotely from “a secure location off site.”

Mr. O’Brien typically works from a West Wing office that is steps away from the Oval Office. It is unclear when he was last in contact with Mr. Trump, although he joined him on a July 10 trip to Florida. A photo of Mr. O’Brien taken after he left the plane in Miami shows him without a mask.

Dr. Birx wants to see all of Tennessee mandate masks — but stops short of asking for a statewide mandate.

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Credit...Doug Mills/The New York Times

Dr. Deborah L. Birx, the Trump administration’s coronavirus response coordinator, made it clear during a visit to Tennessee on Monday that she believes that everyone in the state should be required to wear masks — but she stopped short of publicly asking its governor to issue a statewide mandate.

“We need 100 percent of the counties, including the rural counties, to have these mandates,” Dr. Birx said during a news conference.

Then the state’s governor, Bill Lee, a Republican, took to the lectern and was asked if Dr. Birx had pressed him to issue a statewide mandate. “We talked about statewide mandates, we also talked about alternative approaches,” he said. Tennessee reported 2,871 new cases on Sunday, the most it has reported in a single day, according to a New York Times database.

It was another example of how the nation’s patchwork of rules and recommendations at different levels of government has complicated efforts to control the virus.

Federal health officials issue guidelines and make recommendations, but state and local officials do not always follow them. Mr. Trump has been dismissive of or slow to promote some federal recommendations — it took weeks for him to appear in a mask after health experts called for face coverings — and suggested on Monday that more governors should reopen.

As Kentucky officials weighed new restrictions, Dr. Birx said over the weekend that the leaders of nearby states should consider doing the same by closing bars again and issuing restrictions on public gatherings “to really make it possible to control the pandemic before it gets worse.”

Gov. Andy Beshear of Kentucky said Monday that the state’s bars would have to close again to slow the spread, about a month after they had reopened. He also reduced the legal restaurant capacity from 50 percent to 25 percent, and issued an informal recommendation that schools wait until the third week of August to resume in-person classes.

Kentucky had already implemented two other recommendations put forward by Dr. Birx: requiring face masks for public indoor spaces, and limiting social gatherings to 10 people. “I don’t want to be a state where casket makers are running out,” Mr. Beshear said.

States in the South and Midwest are facing the prospect of shutting down parts of their economies again to try to stem the virus, which the Trump administration and many governors have increasingly been forced to recognize as unrelenting. Florida has surpassed New York, an early center of the pandemic in the United States when testing was scarce, in the number of known cases. And on Monday, Oklahoma and New Mexico broke state records for single-day cases.

And despite increased testing capacity across the nation, there is a consensus among federal state and local officials that test results are taking too long.

Protesters in Puerto Rico blame tourists’ heedless behavior for rising cases.

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Credit...Ricardo Arduengo/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images

Instead of the welcome that a tourism-hungry island would usually extend, travelers to Puerto Rico over the weekend encountered angry protesters outside the San Juan airport, demanding that the airport be closed to tourists.

The protesters’ complaint: Too many visitors have been blithely ignoring social distancing precautions and mask mandates.

A caravan of cars honking their horns, with protesters holding up signs, blocked traffic into the airport, and some protesters on foot clashed with police.

“We are going to continue with this caravan and with this fight, because this is a question of life or death,” one protester, Ricardo Santos Ortiz, said on WAPA-TV Saturday.

Puerto Rico reopened to tourism July 15, but a day later Gov. Wanda Vázquez Garced reversed course, pushing the opening off for a month and shutting many businesses down again, because coronavirus cases were soaring on the island. That has not stopped tourists from arriving anyway, often flying in from virus hot spots around the U.S. to vacation in one of the few tropical getaways that Americans can visit now.

About 12,000 people have flown to San Juan from Miami so far in July, five times as many as in April, according to Greg Chin, a spokesperson for Miami International Airport. José Reyes of the Puerto Rico National Guard said in a televised interview last week that only about 20 percent of arriving visitors were complying with Puerto Rico’s requirement that they have a negative Covid-19 test from the previous 72 hours.

Puerto Rico shut down early, before any U.S. state, and managed to avoid a major coronavirus outbreak in the spring. But its daily case counts have soared in the last two weeks, and residents say the influx of tourists is to blame for much of the rise.

Videos of unmasked tourists dancing in the streets and scuffling at the airport have recently gone viral, and some businesses have called the police to deal with tourists who became aggressive when asked to wear a mask.

Though the island’s hotels are open, much else is shut down, including hotel swimming pools, casinos and tourist attractions; beaches are closed except for solo exercise.

A late-stage trial of a potential vaccine will enroll people at 89 sites around the United States.

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Credit...Tony Luong for The New York Times

One of the first large studies of safety and effectiveness of a coronavirus vaccine in the United States began on Monday, according to the National Institutes of Health and the biotech company Moderna, which collaborated to develop the vaccine.

The first shot was given to a person at 6:45 a.m., Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s leading infections disease expert, told reporters.

The study, a Phase 3 clinical trial, will enroll 30,000 healthy people at about 89 sites around the country. Half will receive two shots of the vaccine, 28 days apart, and half will receive two shots of a saltwater placebo. Neither the volunteers nor the medical staff giving the injections will know who is getting the real vaccine.

Dr. Fauci estimated that the trial’s full enrollment of 30,000 will be completed by the end of the summer, and that results might be available by November. Even earlier results might be possible, he said, but added that he doubted that would be the case.

A second company, Pfizer, announced Monday afternoon that it would also begin a late-stage study of a coronavirus vaccine, on Tuesday. Pfizer has been working with a German company, BioNTech. Their study will also include 30,000 people, from 39 states in the United States, and from Brazil, Argentina and Germany.

The government announced last week that it had reached a $1.95 billion deal to buy 100 million doses of Pfizer’s vaccine by the year’s end, but only if the trial proves it safe and effective.

At the news briefing, Dr. Francis Collins, the director of the National Institutes of Health, said that at least three other Phase 3 trials would be starting soon, each needing 30,000 patients. Those trials will involve vaccines made by Novavax, by a collaboration of the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca, and by Johnson & Johnson. All are part of the U.S. government’s Operation Warp Speed.

Once volunteers are vaccinated, researchers will be looking for side effects and waiting to see if the vaccine significantly lowers cases of Covid-19. The study will also try to find out if it can prevent severe Covid-19 cases and death; if it can prevent infection entirely, based on lab tests; and if just one shot can prevent the illness.

Earlier tests of the vaccine showed that it stimulated a strong immune response, with minor and transient side effects like sore arms, fatigue, achiness and fever. But exactly what type of immune response is needed to prevent the illness is not known, so Phase 3 studies are essential to determine whether a vaccine really works.

35 lifeguards are infected in an outbreak at the Jersey Shore.

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Credit...Hannah Yoon for The New York Times

Long Beach Island, a popular summertime destination along the Jersey Shore, is now a different kind of hot spot.

Thirty-five lifeguards from two boroughs on the barrier island — Surf City and Harvey Cedars — recently tested positive for the coronavirus, the island’s health department announced on Monday.

Public health officials said that half of the lifeguards were experiencing mild symptoms and the rest were asymptomatic. None were hospitalized, the officials said.

The outbreak was traced to two social gatherings that the lifeguards attended on July 12 and July 14, according to the Long Beach Island Health Department, which said it dispatched nurses to investigate cases and issue quarantine orders.

“Based on our investigation so far, the workplace was not the source of transmission and practices likely prevented additional cases,” the Health Department said in a news release on Monday. “The youth and young adults should recognize they are not immune to this virus.”

During a daily briefing on the coronavirus pandemic on Monday, Gov. Phil Murphy of New Jersey mentioned the outbreak on Long Beach Island and said he was troubled by reports of large social gatherings of young people.

“This is among us, folks,” Mr. Murphy said. “Any of us who thinks we can just put our feet up and relax and let this take its course is not paying attention, particularly congregating inside, in close proximity, poor ventilation, without face coverings. You’re looking for trouble. You’re absolutely looking for trouble, no matter how old you are.”

In Harvey Cedars, 18 of 73 lifeguards were infected, according to the borough’s website, which said that its beaches were still open and fully staffed. The lifeguards who tested positive for the virus will not be allowed to return to work until they meet the safety protocols set by the island’s health department, according to a post on the borough’s website. It was not immediately clear what those protocols are.

When reached by phone on Monday evening, the mayor of Surf City, Francis R. Hodgson Sr., refused to comment.

On Long Beach Island, only one lifeguard is allowed in a lifeguard stand under social distancing guidelines that the island’s Health Department said it implemented at the start of the season. Lifeguards must report directly to their stand and communal activities are barred, health officials said.

The doctor behind the data in discredited studies is said to have a history of misrepresenting information.

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Credit...Rich Saal/The State Journal-Register, via USA TODAY NETWORK

The doctor who supplied the data for two discredited Covid studies had a history of cutting corners and misrepresenting information as he pursued his ambitions, former colleagues say.

In May, Dr. Sapan Desai published two high-profile studies, including one that found that anti-malaria drugs promoted by President Trump had harmed patients being treated for Covid-19. The study almost instantly disrupted multiple clinical trials amid the pandemic. (The Food and Drug Administration said that hydroxychloroquine has not been shown to be safe and effective and should not be used outside clinical trials.)

Last month, both studies were retracted by the medical journals that had published them, after researchers around the world suggested the data was dubious. Dr. Desai, who declined to share the raw data even with his co-authors, claimed it was culled from a massive trove acquired by Surgisphere, a business he started during his residency.

The New York Times interviewed more than two dozen people who have known Dr. Desai over the past two decades. He has cast himself as an ambitious physician, an entrepreneur with an M.B.A. and a prolific researcher published in medical journals.

But more than a dozen doctors who worked with him during training and residency said they had often found him to be an unreliable physician, who seemed less interested in patient care than in his company and a medical journal he founded.

“You couldn’t trust what he said,” said Dr. Vanessa Olcese, a former chief resident who worked with Dr. Desai at Duke University Medical Center.

U.S. ROUNDUP

Google’s employees will work from home until mid-2021.

Sundar Pichai, the chief executive of Google’s parent company, Alphabet, told employees Monday that they would not be expected back in the office until mid-2021.

The company’s work force, which has been working remotely since March, had previously been told to expect a return to offices in January 2021.

A Google spokesman said: “To give employees the ability to plan ahead, we are extending our global voluntary work from home option through June 30, 2021 for roles that don’t need to be in the office.”

Technology companies moved quickly with work-from-home policies, and have been reluctant to bring workers back too early. In May, Facebook said it would allow many employees to work from home permanently.

In other developments around the United States:

Washington, D.C., said travelers should quarantine for 14 days if they arrive from 27 “high-risk” states that meet certain criteria, including California, Florida and Texas. Residents in nearby Maryland and Virginia — which are both seeing increased numbers of cases — are exempted from the order. People arriving after essential travel in those states or arriving in Washington for essential travel should self-monitor. Many states across the United States have added restrictions on incoming travelers in hopes of curbing the spread of the virus.

The Labor Department has been struggling to process a pileup of compensation claims from federal workers who have fallen ill with the coronavirus, according to an audit by the department’s inspector general. The department expects to have received roughly 6,000 claims by next Tuesday, and has been slow to sift through the ones it has received already, according to the report: as of June 16, the department had processed only 911 of the 2,866 claims it had received.

Twenty-three states are going ahead with in-person bar exams — the grueling tests that aspiring lawyers must pass to practice — on Tuesday and Wednesday, despite the recent surge in coronavirus cases across the country. Most of the states are in the South or Midwest; many, like Mississippi, Missouri and Oklahoma, have seen sharp recent rises in case reports. The danger posed by having numerous test-takers sitting in the same rooms for hours has prompted many other states to postpone the exam until later in the year, switch to administering it online, or both. Some states that usually give the exam in early September have also announced postponements.

Gov. Gavin Newsom of California announced a $52 million grant from the federal government aimed at slowing the virus’s rampage through the states’s Central Valley, where residents of predominantly Latino communities have consistently been required to keep showing up at work in fields or meatpacking plants and warehouses. The money will go toward more focused testing efforts to identify outbreaks, education for employees and employers about rights to sick leave and other safety issues, as well as improvements to quarantine and isolation protocols.

State officials in Texas changed their methodology for reporting coronavirus deaths on Monday, causing a spike in their data. More than 6,000 people in Texas are now known to have died from the coronavirus, according to a New York Times database that uses state and county data, an increase of more than 1,000 since Sunday.

The gym chain Planet Fitness announced Monday that all guests would be required to wear masks at all times while inside its facilities, effective Aug. 1. The announcement follows similar policies implemented by national chains in recent weeks. Planet Fitness opened its 2,000th gym in December 2019.

George Washington University announced on Monday that all undergraduate classes would be taught online this fall as the number of cases rises in Washington, D.C., Maryland and Virginia. The university said it would provide on-campus housing to a limited number of students with extenuating personal or academic circumstances. (An earlier version of this briefing reported erroneously that Georgetown University would also be holding all classes online.)

The Metro Atlantic Athletic Conference said it would cancel fall sports competition due to virus concerns, including men’s and women’s soccer, women’s volleyball, and men’s and women’s cross country. It joined the Ivy League and the Patriot League in placing sports on hold.

The surge in coronavirus infections in Missouri has temporarily shut down Harris-Stowe State University in St. Louis, less than a month before the fall semester was set to begin, because of a cluster of reported infections among campus employees. The historically black university conducted all its summer classes online this year, so there were few students and faculty members on the campus. But a smattering of other university employees have been working there since May, and the city of St. Louis and the surrounding county have been reporting high rates of infection.

The carefully tended grapes of France are condemned to become hand gel after the wine markets collapse.

Across France, thousands of winemakers, famous and obscure, are facing moments of heartbreak.

The economic crisis, combined with the Trump administration’s 25 percent tax on French wines in a trade war dispute with Europe, has collapsed the wine market.

So some of the wine for which France is famous will wind up as hand sanitizer.

The 2020 harvest, blessed by abundant sunshine, is barely a month away. The wine vats must be emptied for the new production. The distillery is the only option.

“We’re producing more than we can sell,” said Thibaut Specht, a winemaker in Alsace. “We have no choice.”

Marion Borès’s family business, Domaine Borès, in Reichsfeld, is sending off half its production — 320,000 liters — to a distiller for conversion into alcohol for sanitizer. “It’s like you are saying goodbye to somebody who is very dear to you,” she said.

GLOBAL ROUNDUP

North Korea accused a defector of bringing in the virus, but there’s no evidence of that.

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Credit...Naohiko Hatta/Kyodo News, via Associated Press

After North Korea on Sunday accused a man of secretly crossing into the country from South Korea and bringing the virus with him, Seoul went in search of any defectors ​in ​the South who were missing.

By Monday, South Korean officials had zeroed in on a 24-year-old man, identified only by his family name, Kim, who in 2017 swam across the western inter-Korea border to defect to the South. On July 19, he swam back across the border into Kaesong in the North, they said.

It was not immediately clear why the defector had crossed. The South Korean news agency Yonhap reported that the man had been wanted by the South Korean police for questioning after a rape accusation.

North Korea said on Sunday that the North Korean man was “suspected to have been infected with the vicious virus” and could be the country’s first case. And the reverse defection prompted the North’s leader, Kim Jong-un, to order a total lockdown of Kaesong, a border city of 300,000, and declare a “maximum” national emergency.

Until Sunday, North Korea had ​repeatedly ​said that it had no Covid-19 cases. The claim was questioned by outside experts.

South Korea officials could not say whether the man might have ​carried the virus across the border.

In other news from around the world:

Vietnam, which on Saturday broke a streak of 100 days without a local virus transmission, will evacuate 80,000 people from the central city of Danang after four residents there tested positive this weekend.

Hong Kong will prohibit dining in restaurants, limit public gatherings to two people and require mask-wearing in public at all times, officials said on Monday, reacting to a spike in coronavirus cases. The territory reported 145 cases on Monday, its highest single-day count since the pandemic began.

Belgium’s prime minister reinstated strict social-distancing rules on Monday, saying she was taking aggressive steps to avoid another lockdown. She ordered Belgians not to socialize with more than five people and restricted all shopping visits to 30 minutes. Such measures were in place this spring, as Belgium was just emerging from a strict lockdown. Belgium’s infection numbers remain small but are increasing quickly, particularly in the second-largest city, Antwerp.

Lebanon on Monday ordered bars, houses of worship, cinemas, sporting events and markets to close for two weeks as part of a lockdown after a surge in infections, Reuters reported, citing state media accounts. Some shops, banks and schools will be allowed to open, but only for two days a week.

The virus has been surging across Zambia, with the government announcing a record number of cases. Last week, the authorities also said that 15 lawmakers and 11 members of staff had tested positive.

The Australian Open, the premier golf tournament on the PGA Australasia Tour, won’t be played this year because of the pandemic, Golf Australia announced. The event, which is in its 105th year, had been scheduled for November.

Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the director general of the World Health Organization, said Monday that the coronavirus was “easily the most severe” global health emergency that the organization has declared. He defended how the W.H.O. has handled it from critics including Mr. Trump who have accused it of being slow to sound the alarm, and added that the pandemic “has shown what humans are capable of, both positively and negatively.”

Reporting was contributed by Julie Bosman, Stephen Castle, Troy Closson, Emily Cochrane, Lindsey Rogers Cook, Michael Cooper, Michael Crowley, Nicholas Fandos, Julia Echikson, Gillian Friedman, Ellen Gabler, Kevin Granville, Denise Grady, Rebecca Halleck, Shawn Hubler, Choe Sang-Hun, Tyler Kepner, Patrick J. Lyons, Tiffany May, David McCabe, Raphael Minder, Zach Montague, Adam Nossiter, Richard C. Paddock, Roni Caryn Rabin, Edgar Sandoval, Kaly Soto, Eileen Sullivan, Neil Vigdor, Daniel Victor, Will Wright and Katherine J. Wu.

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